I am wondering if there is any visual documentation of the Sputnik launcher and/or launch, either video or photographs.
I found a photos, after searching around a bit. I haven't found any video yet. See Space.com for more.
Yes, there are videos of the launch of Sputnik 1, there was no way that the Soviet propaganda machinery of those times would have missed the opportunity, and I've seen at least two separate sources, one filmed on a color camera, and another black & white from a slightly different angle.
From what's available online, sadly none are of quality we've become accustomed to, but they should do:
Black & White clips featured in Sputnik Mania film by David Hoffman (can be also seen in this video):
Another interesting thing about Sputnik 1 is how the news was reported in the western media, as seen for example in video of CBS special report. :/