Is there a list of casual, non-technical words, phrases, abbreviations and the like that have developed in any of the space agencies around the world?
The "Space Flight Language Technical Handbook" was developed primarily to help international participants in the Shuttle program understand the colloquial language at JSC.
Unlike most acronym lists which merely define them, it very usefully attempts to teach you how to pronounce them. Knowing when to spell them out and when to pronounce them as a word is important for being in the cool kids club.
Loss Of Signal
The document covers words and phrases as well as acronyms.
Perhaps that would fit what you are asking for?