I was reading this question which has to deal with the accuracy of on-board atomic clocks. In the question it mentions multiple times that only recently did we start including accurate enough clocks on spacecraft that they didn't need to "ask Earth" for the time. Instead they can use their "assumed clock accuracy" to know its position based on the position of the stars, and the current time.
My question is: Can we reverse this methodology for any celestial or solar objects? Is there a way that, from the star-fields (and possibly other available data E.G. velocity, acceleration, etc...) we could determine the time in an accurate enough manner to re-calibrate our spacecraft's clock?
My guess would be that this is a no, but I can't articulate why.