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The most obvious failure of the Space Shuttle SRB O-rings was the Challenger disaster. The burn through location was just about in the worst possible location to cause the catastrophic damage that resulted in the tragic loss of lives.

However, I am wondering if there were other documented failures or serious O-ring degradations or burn through in other launches that were discovered that fortunately did not cause a disaster like Challenger?

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    $\begingroup$ Famously the Thiokol engineers showed data about the previous failures in their doomed attempt to stop the launch. $\endgroup$ – Organic Marble Jul 6 at 11:51
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Yes, several of the previous shuttle launches exhibited erosion and/or "blow-by" of the SRB O-rings, starting with the second flight, STS-2. Much has been written about the failure of NASA and Thiokol management to recognize the severity of the problem and respond appropriately.

The Rogers Commission report covers a lot more than the O-ring problem, but is the most "official" accounting of the issues.

Representation and Misrepresentation: Tufte and the Morton Thiokol Engineers on the Challenger is a fairly deep dive on the data from previous flights.

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Just an extended comment, but I'd like to point that previous failures of o-rings are well documented enough as to be used as example data to show statistical tools.

enter image description here

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    $\begingroup$ The paper I link in my answer points out some problems with this rather famous plot. In particular, some of the temperature data points refer to ambient temperature, and others to the O-ring temperature. $\endgroup$ – Russell Borogove Jul 6 at 15:49

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