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The BBC News article Apollo in 50 Numbers; The Technology shows an image of the Saturn V's computer along with the caption:

The Saturn V's computer was probably the largest computer ever blasted into orbit (Credit: Nasa)

Question: I see a large number of individual boxes along the inside of this ring, and a large "cable harness" above providing interconnection between each box. Is all of this just the computer itself, or are there several related system present.

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That ring is the "instrument unit" (IU). Here's a picture of the component layout.

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There is more there than a computer, but it's mostly dedicated to guidance, navigation, and control. There's a hugely detailed fact sheet here. It lists the systems of the IU as

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A more detailed layout (same source as first picture).

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Image source

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