The question is restricted to payloads having described at least 2 orbits.
When watching launches, it appears that between launch and orbit insertion, the typical time interval is few minutes (perhaps between 8 and 30 minutes depending on the launcher). I imagine minimizing the time inside the atmosphere is important (while constraint by acceleration the payload can sustain and the time to perform the gravity turn).
If we define the launch time as... the launch time (beginning of launcher take off, before clearing the tower) and we consider the payload is in orbit as soon as it is released (end of launcher mission, possibly several seconds after reaching orbital velocity), what is the historical maximal time interval between launch and orbit? What is the minimal one?