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When the Apollo 11 astronauts returned to US territory they famously went through US Customs where they listed "moon" as part of their flight routing:

Apollo 11 customs declaration

Was that a one-off?

What are procedures today? For places that require passport exit controls such as Europe and Russia do astronauts have to go through passport control before launch, too?

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Before launch, NASA (or whatever space agency a particular astronaut is affiliated with) keep their passports and visa, and bring it back to them when they land. Since the astronauts land in Kazakhstan, they need their official documents so they can leave the country and go back home.

This is Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield's reply to the question regarding customs.

NASA kept our passports and visas, and brought them to us at landing, so we had them at the Karaganda airport to leave Kazakhstan.

So the answer to your question: Yes, astronauts do need to go through customs before launch, and upon landing.

Source.

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    $\begingroup$ That's to leave Kazakhstan, which is understandable. What about entering Kazakhstan? What about leaving Russia in the first place? (AFAIK while physically in Kazakhstan, Baikonur is part of Russia for visa purposes) $\endgroup$ – Adam Jul 25 at 0:33
  • $\begingroup$ Yes they need to go through customs to enter Kazakhstan, but then NASA keeps their official documents. $\endgroup$ – StarMan Jul 25 at 0:38
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    $\begingroup$ The Apollo crews didn't land in Russia. Why did they go through customs? $\endgroup$ – Organic Marble Jul 25 at 1:02
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    $\begingroup$ @OrganicMarble: I think the document shown in the question was a joke. $\endgroup$ – DrSheldon Jul 25 at 3:31
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    $\begingroup$ According to this Quora answer, US Navy sailors do go through customs to return to the US. $\endgroup$ – StarMan Jul 25 at 14:09

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