This Classic @DavidHammen answer to the question Who has been the closest to/furthest from the Sun? says:
This bodes well for an Apollo astronaut being the person closest to the Sun, but bodes ill for an Apollo astronaut being the person furthest from the Sun. For closest to the Sun, we need to look for a mission in December or January. That would be Apollo 8 and Apollo 14. Apollo 14 made it's lunar insertion a month after perihelion. Apollo 8 made it's lunar insertion a bit over a week before perihelion. Apollo 8 is the winner in this regard. The closest point to the Sun would have occurred about 20 minutes after lunar insertion. Which of the three Apollo 8 astronauts was closest to the Sun? Who knows. They were quite busy at that time.
I wonder if it is possible to reconstruct the attitude of the Apollo 8 capsule at the stated time ("about 20 minutes after lunar insertion") and combined with the detailed timelines and transcripts available at least estimate which locations within the spacecraft would have been oriented sunwards and which astronaut might have been been most likely to have been there.