Yes this is absolutely a thing. Delta-V can indeed be traded off in a continuous fashion for total flight time (i.e. uses more dV, but lowers transfer times, relative to a Hohmann transfer). Furthermore it's pretty directly analogous to a Hohmann transfer.
I don't know a name for this but the heavily simplified version of this 'partial Hohmann' transfer is as follows:
An impulse pushing a craft in the direction it is travelling raises the other side of the orbit. A Hohmann transfer makes it so this new raised point just clips the orbit of the body you are trying to reach (and then there is another burn to match speed at that intersection). However, if you burn harder, there will still be an intersection and a closer one. It takes more dV for both the initial maneuver and the speed match.
There is indeed literature to discuss this but most it's not usually relevant, for a number of reasons:
If you are going far gravity assists become the more important time vs dV trade-off.
dV is very expensive and (for unmanned missions) time spent waiting is relatively inexpensive.
However, manned Mars missions are an exception, where this trade-off is directly discussed (though less about the orbital mechanics and more about the cost vs ethics of irradiating astronauts).
Bi-elliptic transfers are also a good example. In some cases they use less dV, but they take longer. This is not a continuum though.
Its worth noting all of this only really applies to journey time, if you are free to choose when to set off. Not "If I set of now, how quickly can I get there?". Launch windows are different, but still apply.
There is still a trade-off that can be made in flight, but this is not really analogous to a Hohmann transfer, and involves a highly inefficient radial burn. This you will likely not see discussed much as it's highly inefficient, and waiting for a launch is basically free.
Good luck with the book, let me know if you want me to elaborate anything further.