As far as I could find, there have been no cases of 3d printed parts being installed as direct replacements to ISS parts.
There is however a history of tools being printed (but not necessarily used) and some instances of "functional prints" (parts which aren't for fun, decoration, or technology validation which stay in orbit permanently).
In 2014, NASA started off space 3d printing by printing a torque-ratchet. After that, This article shows another use of 3d printing on the ISS. In it, a wrench was printed however it's unclear whether this was actually used by any astronauts or just as a demo piece.
More recently, a 3d printer with plastic recycling capabilities was installed in the ISS however it too is only intended for technology validation. This video, which provides lots of information about 3d printing on the ISS also specifically states that all items from this printer are intended to be returned to Earth.
An example of "functional prints" includes radiation covers which were printed for radiation sensors in the BEAM module of the ISS. Additionally, parts for a cubesat were printed aboard the ISS and subsequently released from the ISS.
Personally, I wouldn't be surprised if to find a variety of 3d-printed bric-a-brac aboard the ISS such as pencil holders or cable management solutions. Having spent lots of time around 3d printers in personal, educational, and commercial settings, I've found that people always seem to find something to print, even if the printed object serves no purpose. I don't expect the ISS to be any different.
While I could not find any direct evidence of 3d printed parts being used to repair a broken element aboard the ISS, there are cases of 3d printed parts being used in a functional capacity and not only for technology validation or testing purposes.