The energy equivalent of 1 gram of TNT is about 1 kcal or large Calorie. For reference, 1 gram of carbohydrates gives us almost 4 Calories of energy (if we are lucky enough to use it and not store it).
So upon detonation or complete combustion with oxygen:
1 kT of yields Joules -------- ------- TNT 4.2E+09 carbs 1.7E+10 Kerosene 4.6E+11 Methane 5.5E+11 Hydrogen 1.4E+12
If we naively treat a catastrophic rocket explosion (on the launchpad or during an unlikely mishap where it comes crashing down soon after launch on the equivalent of the Pillars of Baikonur), then rocket fuel has 100 to 300 times the energetic "yield" of TNT.
So even though the potential energy yield of rocket fuel is orders of magnitude larger than TNT, it's explosive yield, say in equivalent shock wave energy, might be far less.
Question: Have there been any quantitative estimates of the explosive energy released in a rocket explosion, separate from the total energy released as heat? Has a rocket explosion every knocked something down at a distance, or blown out windows for example?