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This excellent answer to Just how huge is Mars' cloud of hydrogen? links to the 14 October 2014 Nature News item "Hydrogen Cloud Blows Off Mars", by Alexandra Witze, https://www.nature.com/news/hydrogen-cloud-blows-off-mars-1.16156 (October 2014) which says

Hydrogen seems to be leaving the planet's atmosphere in clumps and streams that extend as far as about 10 Mars radii (roughly 34,000 kilometres) into space, said Michael Chaffin, a MAVEN scientist at the University of Colorado Boulder, at a 14 October news briefing.

The hydrogen comes from water vapour that breaks apart in the upper atmosphere. And because hydrogen is so much lighter than oxygen, it escapes into space relatively easily. “That’s effectively removing water from the Martian atmosphere,” says Chaffin.

and includes the image below.

I don't understand how the hydrogen, produced by dissociation of water in Mars' atmosphere then form clumps and/or streams and then leave it.

Question: What does "clumps and streams" of hydrogen leaving Mars' atmosphere really mean? Are there images of them?

I see neither clumps nor streams in the third image. Perhaps more information has been shared since 2014?


carbon, oxygen and hydrogen in Mars's atmosphere, captured by MAVEN's ultraviolet spectrograph

Views of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen in Mars's atmosphere, captured by MAVEN's ultraviolet spectrograph. University of Colorado/NASA

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  • $\begingroup$ Clumps of hydrogen, that would be solid hydrogen or a mix of solid and liquid. But solid hydrogen escaping the atmosphere of Mars seems imposible. $\endgroup$ – Uwe Dec 28 '19 at 16:59

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