Before I'd read Why did the Ulysses probe reach Jupiter much faster than Galileo? and this answer to What's the largest rocket that was carried to space inside a Space Shuttle? I never really appreciated the fact that the Space Shuttle has deployed several large rockets into Earth orbit.
Question: How many Space Shuttle payloads ended up beyond Earth orbit? And if possible, what were the missions?
I chose "beyond Earth orbit" rather than "deep space" so as not to exclude anything that ended up cis-lunar. "Payloads" does not mean to exclude spent rocket bodies or other hardware if those turn out to be interesting, but I'm primarily just interested in the main payloads or the names of the missions themselves.