I am currently aware of the following types of propellant tank technology:
- Steel fuselage, used in the V-2/A-4 & other rockets of its era (essentially a plane body)
- Integral steel tanks, first used by the Soviet R-2, also used on the Aerobees (?) (tank wall is load-bearing--there is no separate frame/skin encapsulating the tank).
- Integral aluminum tanks, first used by the Viking sounding rockets and then many rockets after that.
- Steel balloon tanks, first used by Atlas, then by the Centaur stage (must be pressurized to maintain structural integrity)
- Common-bulkhead aluminum tanks, first used on the S-II stage (?)
- Integral titanium tanks, ??? (don't know when they were used).
- Carbon composite tanks, first attempted on Venture Star (?) but technology not matured until ???
- Stainless steel, planned for use by SpaceX's Starship (how does this differ from 1940-50s technology?)
Page 16, numbered 4, of this NASA document has proved helpful, but its time range is quite limited to the active US rockets of its era.