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A manned Mars mission would last about two Earth years. However no astronaut was continuously in outer space for that long, the record are Valery Polyakov's 437 days on Mir. If SpaceX wants to send humans to the red planet in 2024 or any other space agency having plans to send people to Mars they should be eager to hold a selection of voluntary astronauts to remain two years continuosly on the ISS. If they'd be able to handle two years living in microgravity on the ISS, they'd also handle that factor in the manned Mars mission where they would even be in some gravity while on Mars. So what are the space agencies waiting for?

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    $\begingroup$ Of course it's a big interest for long stay experement. But most probably it would be organised as optional prolongation, as it was done with couple of astronauts already (6 month stays were prolonged to 9-12 months). The NASA management wants to nave a backup plan if the astronaut can't stay so long. $\endgroup$
    – Heopps
    Apr 23, 2020 at 6:44
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    $\begingroup$ SpaceX does not get to select astronauts for the ISS. $\endgroup$ Apr 23, 2020 at 12:17
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    $\begingroup$ @OrganicMarble So what? NASA can do it for them. $\endgroup$
    – user35272
    Apr 23, 2020 at 12:18
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    $\begingroup$ Why? SpaceX's only role in the ISS is logistics and soon, crew transportation. Thinking they get to select who the crew is shows a sad misunderstanding of their role. $\endgroup$ Apr 23, 2020 at 12:21
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    $\begingroup$ Again, NASA does not support SpaceX's Mars program SpaceX is a NASA contractor for ISS support. MarsOne is a defunct scam. $\endgroup$ Apr 23, 2020 at 12:29

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Two of the crewmembers of the future Soyuz MS-19 are scheduled to stay 354 days at the ISS. That will make it the longest stay at the ISS. No crewmember has stayed for one year, much less 2 years.

Keep in mind that crew are sent up to perform work (experiments, maintenance) at the station, not merely to be occupants. It's not a hotel.

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    $\begingroup$ Keeping a few people continuously in a state of weightlessness for 2 years would be a experiment. No one is saying that people should stay in the ISS "as occupants". If human beings want to explore the solar system, we'll need to understand the effects of continuous weightlessness. It seems like it would be a good idea to work up to longer stays gradually with many subjects. $\endgroup$ Jul 23, 2021 at 15:16
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    $\begingroup$ What is needed is a facility to test the zero gravity and reduced gravity mission profile. And as a follow up mammalian reproduction studies (probably with mice initially) to ensure reduced gravity does not cause developmental problems. Nobody seems to want to pay for any of that at the moment, but all the grand plans about the colonisation of Mars might turn to naught if there are issues. And that is an open question. $\endgroup$
    – Slarty
    Jul 23, 2021 at 15:26

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