The most popular ion thruster design seems to use Xenon. Unfortunately, due to it's low boiling point Xenon isn't easily available in space.

Are there other materials from which ion thrusters could be build that we could mine from asteroids?

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    $\begingroup$ For broad definitions of "ion thrusters", many gases will work. $\endgroup$ – ikrase May 12 '20 at 3:01
  • $\begingroup$ Mining asteroid may seem like easy going way, but you would surprise how dependent mankind extraction techniques are to water, oxygen, carbon, chlorine, fluorine, sulfur even on Earth. Direct extraction techniques without any additional chemical are in it's infancy and could apply only to few compounds. $\endgroup$ – WOW 6EQUJ5 May 16 '20 at 13:51

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