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I mean launch from Earth, dock to the gateway and come back.

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    $\begingroup$ From a technical standpoint, Soyuz spacecraft launched on Soyuz launchers don't have enough performance to reach the Lunar Gateway. A more powerful launcher and appropriate transfer stage could; I'm not sure if existing Proton rocket hardware is up to the task. The political side is a completely separate issue. $\endgroup$ – Russell Borogove Jun 4 '20 at 3:56
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    $\begingroup$ Soyuz spaceship initially was developed for flights to Moon, but it was long time ago. As well as with Apollo and current SLS-Orion develoment, some systems of Soyuz will require "reinvention" I think. For example the heat shield should be upgraded to withstand 11 km/s atmospheric reentry at return. Proton rocket is an another story with its toxic propellant. Probably it would be hard to sertify Proton for manned spaceflight. Another candidate launchers are Angara (in troubled development) and Soyuz-5 (in initial development phase now, I'm some pessimistic about success). $\endgroup$ – Heopps Jun 4 '20 at 5:38
  • $\begingroup$ @Heopps Each Soyuz carries special weight for balance. This weight initially was planned to be additional heat shield... $\endgroup$ – Anixx Jun 4 '20 at 5:41
  • $\begingroup$ Do you mean the spacecraft itself, or the entire launch system? If the system what rocket were you thinking? $\endgroup$ – GdD Jun 4 '20 at 8:28
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    $\begingroup$ This one might have been able to - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_7K-L1 $\endgroup$ – Dave Gremlin Jun 4 '20 at 16:22
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They would require another vehicle to provide the delta-v to get to the moon and then to return. So by themselves no.

Assuming some sort of additional stage were launched then they would need a beefed up heat shield for the higher energy reetry speed. (Or else some other method of slowing down, like using the additional stage to capture into Earth orbit, wasting delta-v/fuel/etc).

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    $\begingroup$ This would be improved if you added references showing the needed and available delta-v. And a reference to the max reentry capability of the Soyuz heat shield. As written, it's a "because I say so" answer. $\endgroup$ – Organic Marble Mar 15 at 15:17

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