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ISS expeditions last up to half a year, as long as a flight to or from Mars would last. Here I answered to a question dealing with the adaptation of Martian visitors from microgravity to Martian 0.38 g. It mentions Scott Kelly who had hard time to re-adjust to 1 g, but he was a year in microgravity. How do the astronauts on "typical" ISS expeditions re-adjust to 1 g, when returning from space after about half a year, both immediately and long-term? When can they stand up with help and when without help nor any helping tools? When are they fully re-accustomed to the Earth's 1 g?

I'm assuming Martian astronauts would go through the same body exercise regimen as ISS astronauts do, and adapting to Martian gravity would be even easier.

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    $\begingroup$ Posting as a comment since it's not a complete answer, but Chapter 17 "The Hard Thump of Reality" of Clay Anderson's The Ordinary Spaceman gives an extremely detailed and frank account of the first few days after returning from a long duration mission. $\endgroup$ – Organic Marble Jun 12 at 13:38
  • $\begingroup$ This is too broad, there is no one size fits all here. $\endgroup$ – GdD Jun 12 at 13:46
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    $\begingroup$ Here's a little vignette: Expedition 33 lands youtube.com/watch?v=aY84PEAZETE and is then welcomed to Kazakstan youtube.com/watch?v=xkf2-UJWMr8 $\endgroup$ – uhoh Jun 12 at 15:24
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    $\begingroup$ @LoveForChrist I'm sure you don't mean any disrespect, but that's not really an appropriate topic for discussion. Most landings are available in YouTube by a quick search, this sequence is just the first one I could remember that shows them from ISS through exiting the capsule to the reception ceremony. $\endgroup$ – uhoh Jun 12 at 22:47
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    $\begingroup$ Highly related, if not a duplicate: Why were Space Shuttle astronauts able to walk off the orbiter? My answer says the Shuttle astronauts who were able to walk off the returning Orbiter could do so because they only spent 12 days in zero g. Astronauts and cosmonauts who stayed on the ISS for significantly longer stretches of time needed considerable assistance on landing. $\endgroup$ – David Hammen Jun 13 at 1:35

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