U.S. spacecraft in low earth orbit communicate with the ground using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. Prominent uses have included the Space Shuttle, Hubble Space Telescope, and International Space Station.

Communications between Moscow mission control and the ISS are sometimes carried through TDRSS, even if indirectly. Let's therefore exclude the ISS when answering this question.

Excluding the ISS, has Russia used the TDRS system for anything?

  • $\begingroup$ Not one, as far as I know. This is why Russia and Europe have built their equivalents of the US TDRSS, and India is planning to build its own equivalent. $\endgroup$ – David Hammen Jun 29 at 9:03

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