Question: How would a deep-space spacecraft protect its crew and electronics from cosmic radiation, solar wind, and solar events?
I'm trying to design a hypothetical space station and have been doing research on what it would take to create a sustainable space craft. One major issue is radiation from cosmic rays and solar flares.
Water is effective at absorbing radiation, but I can't figure out a way to have the water flow on the exterior of the spacecraft without freezing or boiling off. Another option would be to use reinforced polyethylene as the outer layer since polyethylene contains a high concentration of hydrogen, which is good at absorbing radiation and not creating a secondary wave.
However, how would polyethylene protect against solar flares and cosmic rays, which contain an immense amount of energy?