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I'd like to know if astronauts have been under the effect of Disabling Glare, how easily this could accidentally happen and how long can last if this happen?

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    $\begingroup$ Once you go blind, whether you are an astronaut or just a human on the Earth's surface, you generally don't regain your sight. $\endgroup$ – Rory Alsop Aug 17 '20 at 16:42
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    $\begingroup$ @RoryAlsop It might be also a temporary blindness causing, for example, dangers in common traffic. $\endgroup$ – peterh - Reinstate Monica Aug 17 '20 at 18:30
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    $\begingroup$ @RoryAlsop if one bleaches the photoreceptor molecules with too much visible light then it's only a matter of time before they are removed and replaced with fresh photoreceptors. This is the rationale Feynman use when viewing an atomic bomb detonation through a car window; the glass would remove any dangerous UV and the eye can not transmit thermal IR, leaving only near IR and visible. realclearscience.com/blog/2016/04/… quotes from "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!": Adventures of a Curious Character $\endgroup$ – uhoh Aug 17 '20 at 19:04
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    $\begingroup$ Voting to leave the question open and will vote to reopen it if the insta-closers succeed. I think the question is on-topic and can have a science and fact-based answer. There is no reason to quickly block users from an opportunity to post an answer! We have one fact-based answer already, let's continue to allow users to post more! Instead if someone has a good idea how to improve the question, go ahead and edit it or provide a helpful suggestion how to do so! $\endgroup$ – uhoh Aug 18 '20 at 0:30
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    $\begingroup$ You can seriously damage your eyes by looking directly into the sun even when standing on Earth. I fail to see why astronauts wouldn't have it even worse. $\endgroup$ – Polygnome Aug 18 '20 at 12:21
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Partial answer (written prior to major edit of question):

Not sure about "going blind" but eye damage can occur in as little as 10 seconds. Nor do I know how long it takes to recover from "going blind".

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Most spacecraft windows and spacesuit helmet visors have coatings to prevent transmission of UV. This label refers to the one on the shuttle that didn't.

Reference: Do astronauts have to use sunscreen?

The shuttle Medical Checklist EYE PROBLEMS category does not have an entry for eye damage caused by exposure to UV.

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  • $\begingroup$ I wonder if during EVAs the ISS astronauts are required to don any light-reducing shield over their helmets whenever they are in a sunlit area, or if it's completely voluntary, as well as wonder if that a separate question. $\endgroup$ – uhoh Aug 18 '20 at 0:48
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    $\begingroup$ Anecdotal comment (and, a data set of one): I found it literally, perhaps even physiologically, impossible to force my naked eyes to within about 20 arc-degrees or so of the sun when viewed through a window...just could not do it. The sun was a demon up there! Dark sunglasses were an absolute must if doing any work that involved looking anywhere near the sun. $\endgroup$ – Digger Sep 18 '20 at 15:16
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Special requirements in open space are imposed on the transparent part of the suit: protection of eyes and face from active ultraviolet rays, infrared (thermal) rays, should weaken solar radiation in the visible part of the spectrum, while ensuring good visibility at this illumination.

В открытом космосе, за пределами атмосферы, состав солнечного излучения существенно отличается от того, к которому мы привыкли на поверхности Земли. Поэтому особые требования предъявляются к прозрачной части шлема: остекление и светофильтры должны защитить глаза и кожу лица от чрезвычайно активных ультрафиолетовых лучей, от инфракрасных (тепловых) лучей, должны ослабить солнечное излучение в видимой части спектра, обеспечив при этом хорошую видимость при различной освещенности.

Magazine "Science and Life" №6-1978. Space suits.

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