A rocket launch normally begins with a roll to align with the orbital plane and a pitch to allow gravity to gradually torque the rocket down as it climbs. The combined roll and pitchover maneuver last a few seconds. The gravity turn maneuver that follows lasts a few minutes.
But what then? In a gravity turn, the rocket controls primarily for angle of attack, and this leaves it vulnerable to disturbances and irregularities that need correcting before entering orbit, beside the inevitable differences that will arise between flight simulations on the ground and the actual flight conditions during launch.
So it seems clear that the launch sequence must include at least one last maneuver. What would that maneuver be? What is it called and how does it manage to take the rocket to just the right speed, altitude, and angle of attack for orbit?
Any references for more info? Thanks!