Fundamentally, all landers eventually use lithobraking - it's called touchdown, and the last few m/s are shed that way. Apollo lunar lander landing gear were design rated for a maximum of 5 feet per second vertical velocity at touchdown.
High Velocity Impact
Currently, artillery electronics can be hardened for short duration 30000 Gee accelerations according to public data; it's almost a certainty that the actual numbers are higher. Similar decelerations are acceptable provided the electronics are designed for that.
Typical science packages are not going to be able to survive that. Certain science packages might be able to do so, and plowing into a 100m long skid (or penetration) from 300m/s is shedding 45kj/kg in 0.6 sec or so, and about 6900 G's.
In order to survive this, special construction techniques are needed, and the types of experiments are limited severely.
Lithobreaking as Sole Method
The speeds needed for orbit are high enough that lithobraking is implausible for a a sole method even for the best hardened projectile electronics.
For translunar or more distant missions, the speeds and energies are higher still, and a shallow graze would result in a skip into orbit or past the target.
Lithbreaking as final process
The Pathfinder Rover is considered to have used Lithobraking via it's airbag bounce landing. This was used to shed a 14 meters per second at 18 G peak impact - too high for human safety, but well within human survivability. And, since it performed multiple science activities, easily within the realm of delivery for science payloads.
Similar systems could be used on the moon, albeit with much longer runs and higher bounces.
Price and Mass
The two competing issues are price and mass. For the Pathfinder rover, it was competetive; I've read (but cannot cite) that it was more expensive than rocket, but thought to be more likely to succeed. It was not more mass-efficient, but wasn't severely higher, and offered a number of other failure mode advantages.
The system was not practical when scaled up for larger rovers - both mass and price resulted in a return to thrust based.