The most well-known repeat ground track orbits are geostationary and geosynchronous orbits, having orbital periods in a 1:1 ratio with the revolution of the Earth.
Faster repeat ground track orbits are however sometimes used. Molniya orbits do for instance use a 2:1 ratio, spending most of their foot print time over two locations in at high latitude. A significant motivation for using these orbits is their comparatively low delta-v costs to geostationary orbits (~2/3 the cost from LEO).
Are there commonly used satellite orbits with even shorter periods than these half-day ones?
Used for their repeating ground track properties, that is. There are of course many satellites with shorter periods, but those tend to have drifting sinusoidal tracks.