Are there any physical, mental, or health-related medical conditions that could permanently exclude someone from going into space?
Do the criteria differ from one country's (government sponsored or private) program to another?
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For NASA, candidates must be able to pass the long-duration space flight physical. Height, blood pressure, and vision are three of the physical requirements included in this test. From their website:
It includes the list of medical areas of inspection:
- internal organs inspection;
- neuropsychiatric inspection;
- surgical inspection;
- ophthalmological inspection;
- otorhinolaryngologic inspection;
- dental inspection;
- functional inspection;
- gynecological examination (for women);
- psychiatric inspection;
as well as the list of assays required (all kinds of blood tests, feces, urine, 12-lead ECG, etc etc etc).
And, in particular, the set of general anthropometric requirements.
Anthropometric data (the maximal allowed values):
- height (150-190 cm);
- height in the sitting position (80-99 cm);
- weight (50-90 kg);
- foot length (29.5 cm);
- shoulders (52 cm);
- distance between the armpits (45 cm);
- hip width in the sitting position (41 cm).