In reading this question (Lowest possible lunar orbit and has any spacecraft achieved it?), it prompts the question if any orbiting satellite/spacecraft around the Moon or Mars (the only heavenly bodies other than Earth which have both orbiting spacecraft and intact landings) have been confirmed observed while in orbit by an astronaut or probe on the surface of that body? Pictures of landed craft taken from orbit are well documented, but I'm wondering if the opposite has ever been officially observed by seeing the glint of sunlight off of an orbiting craft.
It's hard to prove a negative, but I do believe this has not been done.
- Soviet Mars and US Viking probes were not capable of this, and had few targets.
- The pathfinder cameras do not seem particularly suited for this.
- I'm not aware of such an attempt being done with Spirit, Opportunity, Curiosity or Perseverance rovers. This is however the best chance as Martian rovers have taken picture of Phobos and Deimos. They may be capable of seeing a satellite flare.
- No such observation in the limited amount of Tianwen-1 material available.
- US Surveyor and Soviet Luna landers seem far from capable of taking such images.
- Having read all the Apollo transcripts, observing the command module from the lunar surface was not attempted.
- No such images from what I have seen released from Chang'e 3, 4 and 5.