Every computational device used in space has to be tolerant to vibrations. Launch is a very shaky process. Every computational system used in space has to be tolerant of various forms of radiation. The Earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere provide very nice shielding against solar and cosmic radiation. That shielding is gone above the Van Allen Belts.
Note that I wrote "system" rather than "device". Making every device in a computational system be tolerant to radiation is one way, but not the only way to make a computational system be tolerant to damage by radiation. SpaceX, for example, uses massive redundancy with somewhat radiation-tolerant computers to overcome the radiation challenges of being in space.
There's a huge downside to using radiation hardened devices: They are computational devices from the previous millennium that are slow (all-caps SLOW), have limited memory, and have even more limited storage capacity. We saw that recently with the landing of the Perseverance. The very cool videos of that landing came about because of the use of computational systems that were not radiation hardened. That landing video would not have been possible using radiation hardened devices. The use of non-hardened devices was allowed because the data captured, recorded, and later transmitted back to Earth was not mission critical.