Like Earthbound satellites are stationed in the polar orbit or Geosynchronous orbit. In which orbit related to Mars the Marsbound orbiters are stations?
Many of the active artificial satellites currently orbiting Mars are in highly inclined orbits, as one would expect, since this increases the amount of the planet they can survey.
- 2001 Mars Odyssey: 93 degree inclination
- Mars Express: 86.3 degree inclination
- Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: 93 degree inclination
- Mangalyaan: 150 degree inclination
- MAVEN: 75 degree inclination
- EXOMARS: 74 degree inclination
- Emirates Mars Mission: 25 degree inclination planned
- Tianwen 1: 10 degree inclination planned
Source: Wikipedia List of Mars Orbiters and the specific links from here to each spacecraft
Thanks to Star Man for the following sources on the last 2 orbiters:
Supplemental and possibly temporary answer.
The orbits are quite different, some very eccentric with very close approach, some always close, some always far away, one is even going "backwards"!
I'm not sure they all have helpful names, perhaps best to treat each one as unique?
Spacecraft ecc inc semi peri apo source --------------------------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ------ Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 0.012 92.8 3646 3602 6684 h Mars Odyssey 0.009 93.0 3826 3761 3826 h Mars Express 0.576 87.0 8819 3740 13898 h Mars Orbiter Mission (a) 0.900 155.7 39752 3951 75552 h Tianwen-1 0.617 86.9 9524 3652 15396 1,2 Emirates Mars Mission 0.333 25.0 33000 22000 44000 3 Maven 0.373 74.8 5676 3559 7794 h h = JPL Horizons 3/14/2021 (Pi day) except for Mars Odyssey & Maven 1/14/2021 1 = https://space.stackexchange.com/q/50429/12102 2 = https://directory.eoportal.org/web/eoportal/satellite-missions/t/tianwen-1 3 = https://directory.eoportal.org/web/eoportal/satellite-missions/content/-/article/emm-hope a = Mangalyaan
Spacecraft heading for Mars will launch away from Earth orbit on a transfer obit that is effectively an orbit around the Sun that intersects the orbit of Mars.
On arrival at Mars the spacecraft will enter the upper reaches of the Martian atmosphere causing frictional breaking and will be slowed down into Martian orbit. The exact Marian orbit will depend upon the exact orientation and velocity of the craft at this point. A variety of different Martian orbits will be used depending on the mission.
For example Mars Odyssey went into a sun synchronous polar orbit to maximise the amount of the planets surface for mapping. Other orbits are possible for different objectives. For example landing on the Martian moons or a Martian synchronous orbit to act as a relay so that a lander or base can communicate with Earth with fewer interruptions.