Thanks to @gerrit's comment I have "irrefutable photographic circumstantial evidence" that the ISS (probably) passed through the penumbra of a partial solar eclipse. I know this is true because it is on the internet.
My evidence is the purple line I drew in the cropped bit of the image shown below.
The International Space Station, with a crew of six onboard, is seen in silhouette as it transits the Sun at roughly five miles per second during a partial solar eclipse on Aug. 21, 2017 near Banner, Wyoming.
Captured by NASA photographer Joel Kowsky while looking up from Banner, Wyoming, perfectly timed images show a tiny ISS passing in front of the sun.
Seriously though, did anybody on the ISS see and/or photograph this partial eclipse? If so, how long did the eclipse last for them, and how did they manage to safely photograph the Sun?