If the suit would be useful, it has to be inflated. Which is definitively not how it looks like in images. If you could manage duct tape to hold the inner pressure for a moment without rupturing and/or leaking immediately, it would clearly help, but in the same moment, the "suit" would turn so stiff from pressure that it would be impossible to perform any work or even move at all. (This is a real issue with all spacesuits and usual reason why they are pressurized with pure oxygen at lower than atmospheric pressure. Alexey Leonov had to intentionally decrease pressure in his spacesuit to be able to overcome its rigidity and get back into Voskhod spacecraft.).
Actually, they could as well have just jumped outside without any suit-attempt at all. A vacuum won't kill you. Not instantly. On the other hand what will probably kill or at least fatally injure directly is a pressure difference. If there would be zero pressure outside your chest, you tissues wouldn't like it, having 1 bar inside lungs. Better to open your mouth and let all over-pressure out. So definitively no face mask.
This is a good strategy and you are not going to die in seconds or so. Nevertheless the critical problem is that you are losing oxygen from blood much faster than when holding your breath under normal conditions. The time of useful consciousness will be the biggest problem. With your lungs and blood circulation open to nearly-vacuum you have maybe not have more than 10 s for any useful action. You wouldn't die directly afterwards, but you would lose the ability to think and soon afterwards consciousness. (Still fine to recover if someone else could drag you back into normal pressure soon, but that was not an option here, I guess.)
Cold is not an issue. Just do not forget to wear good shoes and thick gloves. Vacuum is the best insulator around, so the only thing to worry about would be contact points. (Maybe you can get some nasty sunburn on uncovered skin, but I doubt it would be critical for such a short time.)
If you somehow made it back still conscious, possible fatal late effects would result from lungs injury (it was really not a good idea to try to hold your breath) and decompression sickness. Hard to tell how much manageable or fatal, depends on available care etc. too.
There is actually one well-known historical case, year 1966, NASA technician Jim LeBlanc got accidentally exposed to vacuum. He was exposed for more than one minute and recovered without any permanent damage. Nevertheless he became unconscious in 15 seconds. There is a paper describing a different near-vacuum incident which resulted in significant pressure-related trauma to lungs, but not death.
And then there is a chapter in A.C.Clark's Earthlight about moving through a vacuum. Yes, fiction, but at least somehow researched.