It's not the presence of dust-forming that is the main cause,
it is the utter absence of dust-removal factors.
On Earth, once a bit of dust is made, it is almost immediately snatched up by water, made to bond with surrounding dust, and renamed "dirt". Sometimes even "mud".
And if it gets packed in with enough other dust, then eventually the whole region is subducted into the mantle, and everything gets melted and recycled.
On Mars, once a bit of dust is made, it just .... blows around making more dust.
The only way for dust to hide on Mars is to cover itself in more loose dust. And this does not destroy it, or change its nature. It is just kept immobile for a bit. If for whatever reason it gets uncovered, it is immediately again a speck of dust that is fine enough to be wind-blown.
Even the occasional water or CO2 frost does not help at all. It may cover the dust for a bit, but will soon heat up, sublimate away, and actually waft the dust into the air in the process.
- there is no liquid to bind to the dust.
- there are no oceans that will happily accept megatons of dust and
- there is just too much atmosphere to allow the dust to vacuum-weld
itself to other dust, as good self-respecting Moon dust can do.
- there is no tectonic activity to recycle dust over the billions of
There's not even the chance of a bit of lava covering up the dust!