Of more useful physical and engineering meaning than temperature is the heat flux, which is the energy being deposited on a unit area in unit time. Even a very high temperature with very little energy behind it may do no damage. You can touch a hot pot for a short time.
These papers on detailed thermodynamic models of the MSL heatshield and the MSL backshell provide a great deal of information on the predicted heat flux on the front and back. You will see peak heat fluxes on the front on the order 100 W/cm^2, but only on the order of 10 W/cm^2 on the back.
Note that that does not mean that the temperatures have the same proportions. Temperature is complicated and depends on material characteristics, where exactly in the material (solid or fluid) it is measured, how heat is absorbed and dissipated, local geometries, etc.
In addition to heat flux, of significant engineering interest is the total heat load, the total energy deposited per unit area over the entire entry (the integral of the heat flux), measured in J/cm^2. You will find those in the papers as well. The thermal protection systems have to be designed to take both the maximum heat flux, experienced in the steepest expected trajectory, as well as the maximum heat load, experienced in the shallowest (and so longest) expected trajectory.