As I understand it, the Space Shuttle was essentially a glider when it was coming back to land, and the engines were not there to facilitate powered flight.
So what was the procedure, had the Space Shuttle had to do an aborted landing?
If the Space Shuttle missed its landing approach, what could have been done?
Nothing. Not one thing.
Once the reentry burn was complete, the Shuttle was either going to explode on the way down or land at or near the intended landing site. There was no such thing as an aborted/retried landing. If the Shuttle didn't land at the intended landing site, it was still going to land near that site. The reentry burn made the decision to land irrevocable. The only way to avoid landing was not to perform that reentry burn.
Because landing was a one-shot event, the number one perceived threat to a safe landing was bad weather. There were quite a few Shuttle flights that spent an extra day or two on orbit because of forecasts of inclement weather at or near the intended landing site. Some of the Shuttle flights that were intended to land at the Cape ended up landing at Edwards Air Force Base because of continued threats of bad weather at the Cape. One flight, STS-3, ended up landing at White Sands because of continued threats of bad weather at Edwards.
The other answers address the case of nominal entries. Since the question references aborts, perhaps the intent is to ask about ascent aborts which result in a stable entry that does not reach a runway. In this case a special autopilot mode would be engaged which basically held the wings level, the side hatch would be jettisoned and the crew would use the "escape pole" to bail out. The orbiter would eventually crash into the water.
Note that this was an extremely unlikely situation due to ascent flight design closing most of the black zones.
More information here
And, you can read the bailout flight rules here (Paragraph A2-251)
The answer is that they made sure everything went smooth, understanding they had one chance only:
The early orbiter design for Columbia included emergency ejection seats useful for a late aborted orbiter landing for two cockpit located astronauts. Early Shuttle Astronauts trained in test seats and the flight cabin mockups at JSC/Houston fully included the related seat hardware and means of activation.
The propellants though at Kennedy Launch facility were never loaded and the seats were never available for arming in any landing emergency. This decision was reported to be a direct request of STS-1 astronaut John Young as he had early concerns for the seats operational safety as well as a possible accidental activation during their times of non-use.
Shuttle crews for the following flights also abandoned the emergency egress seat design altogether citing that the seats only afforded a flight crew of two emergency egress, though crews were exceeding that number. On Columbia's later makeover, the emergency seat design was fully removed.