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Superficially the Soyuz and Progress spacecraft look very similar:

Soyuz TMA-7 (Soyuz TMA-7)

Progress M-52 (Progress M-52)

So it would be easy to imagine that they share a common service module and/or orbital module. But does anyone know if this is the case, or how many common systems they do in fact share?

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    $\begingroup$ Hmm, just curious. What are the two light coloured things hanging on some kind of chain in the lower right corner of Progress photo? $\endgroup$ – sharptooth Oct 30 '14 at 10:40
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    $\begingroup$ @sharptooth They're on both photographs. They're the two aft Kurs antennae (radio telemetry) that deploy together with the solar panels and the communications antenna (better seen on the top photo, bottom right). There's two more Kurs antennae at the front of the Soyuz / Progress craft. Refer e.g. to this diagram. $\endgroup$ – TildalWave Dec 4 '14 at 21:32
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They are essentially the same. The Progress resupply spacecraft is a direct derivative of the Soyuz, where the reentry module was replaced by a fuel tank. Hence the similar shape.

Both are launched with the same Soyuz rockets.

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    $\begingroup$ Probably worth mentioning the obvious: the life-support systems were stripped out, saving weight and space, along with the solid-fuel retro-rockets that Soyuz uses to soften landings, etc. But yah, Rikki's answer is correct! $\endgroup$ – Kirkaiya Oct 30 '14 at 18:29
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    $\begingroup$ This picture lead me to this question/answer. Indeed @Kirkaiya , it could be an important distinction in an emergency, faced with a small parking-lot full of spacecraft. $\endgroup$ – uhoh Apr 12 '16 at 1:07
  • $\begingroup$ @Kirkaiya: Don't forget the heatshield (also removed). $\endgroup$ – Sean Mar 30 at 20:38
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The two photographs you have posted show that the soyuz middle section is longer than the corresponding re-entry module of Soyuz.

You can also see the differences between the Soyuz and Progress here Wiki. They are significantly different in that for Progress the re-entry capsule has been replaced and the ISS crew have no access other than to the orbital module. The following text comes from the same wiki page:

The reentry module of the Soyuz was replaced with an unpressurized propellant and refueling compartment with ducting along the outside of the spacecraft. This meant that if a leak occurred, the poisonous gas would not enter the station's atmosphere. The fuel is carried in two tanks.

The wiki page also shows these diagrams: enter image description here

enter image description here

Thus you can see that the Progress is quite different, not at all "essentially the same", as replacig the re-entry module with a module for carrying propellants completely changes the concept of operations of the vehicle.

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