I have a ground stations' lat/lon as well as a satellite's lat/long. I want to calculate the azimuth/elevation of the satellite relatively to the ground station.

Currently, I am using these formulas (read from here) to derive the values:

For azimuth:

enter image description here

and for elevation:

enter image description here

To calculate the elevation/azimuth, the formulas from the mentioned website specifies/needs:


What confuses me, what if my ground station is in the SOUTH latitude and EAST longitude? or rather NORTH latitude and EAST longitude?

For example, if we take Berlin as the ground station location. Berlin is in NORTH latitude and EAST longitude. How do I then calculate the azimuth and elevation of the satellites?

EDIT: Just as an additional information, which I suspect might the problem:

The latitude/longitude of both the satellite and ground station, I get them from the range of:

[-90, 90] LAT

[-180, 180] LON

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ I believe that if you want south latitude its just negative. For example if you're using east longitude and North latitude, Berlin would be 52.5 lat, 13.4 lon and Buenos Aires would be -34.6 lat, -58.38 lon $\endgroup$ Commented Jan 29, 2022 at 22:33
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    $\begingroup$ @AlfonsoGonzalez you are correct. Change your comment into an answer, and take credit for it! :) $\endgroup$
    – Ryan C
    Commented Jan 30, 2022 at 0:01
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    $\begingroup$ This is formula for a geostationary satellite. Not for ANY satellite. $\endgroup$
    – A. Rumlin
    Commented Jan 30, 2022 at 7:15
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ The page you linked is for geostationary satellites, if that's what you want, then you should update your answer to say that. For the more general case, you would need the satellite's height above sea level too, and a much more complicated equation based on time. $\endgroup$ Commented Feb 1, 2022 at 0:11
  • $\begingroup$ Thank you everyone for your comments. You are correct, I thought that the equations are for the more general case and apply to every satellite, regardless of the orbit. I checked them with a geostat satellite, and they checked out. Do you have any material I can find on calculating for the more general case? $\endgroup$ Commented Feb 1, 2022 at 22:31


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