I would like to know if you know of any nanotechnology involved in the James Webb Space Telescope. With 'nanotechnology' I mean any technology working on a 1-100 nm scale.
There are also the microshutters. Not exactly nanometer scale, more like 100x200 microns, but pretty amazing nonetheless.
The following paper describes the actuator that is used to manipulate JWST's primary mirror segments. It is a very clever mechanism that can create 12 millimeter movement and nanometer scale movement using the same motor. Each primary mirror segment has 7 actuators.
The mirrors of the JWST are coated with a gold layer that is 100nm thick. Then the gold layer is coated with a thin layer of silicon dioxide.
From the NASA website:
Once a mirror segment's final shape is corrected for any imaging effects due to cold temperatures, and polishing is complete, a thin coating of gold is applied. Gold improves the mirror's reflection of infrared light.
Some Technical Details: How is the gold applied to the mirrors? The answer is vacuum vapor deposition. Quantum Coating Incorporated did the coatings on our telescope mirrors. Essentially, the mirrors are put inside a vacuum chamber and a small quantity of gold is vaporized and it deposits on the mirror. Areas that we don't want coated (like the backside and all the mechanisms and such) are masked-off. Typical thickness of the gold is 1000 Angstroms (100 nanometers). A thin layer of amorphous SiO2 (glass) is deposited on top of the gold to protect it from scratches in case of handling or if particles get on the surface and move around (the gold is pure and very soft).