The NASA Deep Space Network is a means to get a 360 view of the heavens from zenith to nadir. The NASA DSN complexes were functional as of 1965 providing support to the Apollo Program. More recently ISRO MOM appears to rely upon the NASA DSN too. Ergo, one receives the impression a DSN is essential to deep-space missions.
Did the Soviet deep-space missions (looks like there were more Soviet missions than NASA/others) piggy-back on the NASA DSN?
What was the Soviet counterpart to the NASA DSN?
- Where were their complexes located?