According to various sources (1,2, and 3) lunar landings kick up a lot of dust at very high speeds. Is it possible that some dust was able to get fast enough to escape the moon, fall towards Earth, and survive reentry reasonably intact (not coming down in tiny dust particles)?
Short answer: No
The escape velocity of the moon is about 2.4km per second. The exhaust velocity of the of the LEM’s engines were about 3km per second. At first you might say “well that’s bigger, so it could work!” But don’t be so sure.
The exhaust is pointing into the ground, meaning that almost all of the dust that would be flying off is going into the wrong direction. In addition the exhaust would probably not have the capability to accelerate the dust to 100% of its speed, that’s just the best case. Not only does the dust have to escape the moon, it has to have the right amount of velocity to hit earth instead of flying out into nowhere or orbiting forever. Which is very unlikely. The dust would need to travel at a very specific angle to the moon. This might not even be possible for some of the moon landings because they might have been on the wrong area of the moon. I don’t know for sure though, as I haven’t done all the math to figure that out. And it also has to avoid any obstructions on the moon.
And even if the dust got all of that stuff right, It will still burn up in the atmosphere without a doubt.
“ Is it possible that some dust was able to …” “ survive reentry reasonably intact (not coming down in tiny dust particles)?”
Come now, you’re not supposing dust particles accreted in mid-flight to become something else (i. e., meteoroids)?
Okay, semantics aside. Non-dust (>30 micrometer) would strike other (mostly lesser) particles as part of the “ejecta” plume. Scattering directions would be, well, scattered. It’s only possible to speak on a population basis (like a gas of lunar material), so it’s folly to completely rule out literally zero particles having some threshold speed, in a specific (lunar-escape, eventually Earthbound) trajectory.
The issue is how many particles, which separates an academic (thought exercise) answer from a practical (can I get some of it) answer. The practical answer is no, people have tried catching dust for decades, and have given up trying to select lunar dust (in general) from the dust background. If you want an academic answer (does this phenomenon actually exist?), I’m sorry but I have to answer with another question: Why?