Partially: Skylab (look how that turned out), Proton (the high-energy astronomy satellites, not the rocket), the MOL (Manned Orbiting Laboratory) demonstrator, and of course Mercury, Dragon (some sort of cover on the very tip). You might want to count boilerplate versions of spacecraft designs too (arguably the MOL dummy), which might mean the Pegasus(es) count. Pegasus had protection on the things they cared about.
Unprotected: Gemini (NO launch escape hardware on the front), Shuttle (look how that turned out), and therefore Buran. The Soviet FOBS might count, depending on whether you consider that orbital, or technically orbital or whatever. If you hadn’t mentioned orbit, the list expands to all manner of hypersonic flights.
On anything forward- or close-to-forward facing, aero heating is as much of an issue as air load. Early ICBMs often (but not always) had partially or wholly exposed warheads because they had overdesigned heat shields anyway, so who cares- skipping a fairing saves mass and separation failures. Same with Mercury/Gemini to a lesser extent, plus Shuttle’s (underdesigned, in terms of systems engineering) heat shielding.