I am studying the radiation environment on the moon and would like to read about how secondary radiation has been measured, simulated or even estimated for the lunar surface.

Has this been done? If so, where can I read about it?


1 Answer 1


Consider this partial:

Similar question asked: Did the Surveyor missions measure secondary radiation?

And some links that might be useful?

First measurements of the radiation dose on the lunar surface



The Lunar Lander Neutrons and Dosimetry experiment aboard China’s Chang’E 4 lander has made the first ever measurements of the radiation exposure to both charged and neutral particles on the lunar surface.

Based on similar news at the time:


New measurements show moon has hazardous radiation levels

Both above are September 2020

and a modelling effort from October 2021:

Radiation Environment at the Surface and Subsurface of the Moon: Model Development and Validation


..modelling includes both primary radiation from space and secondary radiation induced in the lunar soil.




Simulation of induced neutron radiation environment on lunar surface

2021 paper including results from 2020.

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(black - external, red - internal)

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This is a comparison to: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1029/2005JE002551

MCNPX benchmark for cosmic ray interactions with the Moon

The MCNPX radiation transport code is used to simulate cosmic ray interactions within the Moon. Accurate source, geometric, and physics models are developed to successfully benchmark neutron density results with Apollo 17 measurements.


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