It was originally designed and tested by NASA for Mars missions. In my case, it does not have to work 100%. Even if it survives for only 1 minute or so, during atmospheric entry - it could add some value to an asteroid mining mission.
For LEO the answer appears to be a qualified yes.
This is notably larger than the 100 tonne space shuttle orbiter with a 23 meter wingspan, due to the larger heat flux that could be tolerated. If a more robust design is possible the area can probably be reduced closer to the 37 by 23 meter shuttle.
Engineering a 50 meter structure that is inflatable is probably not possible but assuming robotic or human assembly presumably already required to load the asteroid into the system a flat pack solution using the same flexible heat shield surface with an assembled supporting structure probably is achievable, possibly also allowing a higher heat loading and therefore smaller dimensions.