Shooting from the hip, this area is known as NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness). I suspect a bare comparison between materials doesn't tell you much. NVH depends very much on the design of the component: bracing can reduce vibration, the size of a component determines how high the resonance frequency of the component will be.
It may be possible to use the propagation speed of sound through a material to determine what the wavelength of a given frequency will be. From this you can derive at which size a panel will resonate to a given frequency.
The rocket provider should be able to tell you which vibration frequencies occur during launch, those are the ones you want to avoid resonance in.
For example: in the Ariane 5 user manual you'll find a section "Environmental conditions" which details the sound levels and vibration levels you can expect.