I'm not sure exactly how they use the data (though this handbook might have some interesting reading, but I can answer the latter half.
From the link you posted:
The Spacecraft Environmental Anomalies Expert System – Real Time (SEAESRT) is a set of data-driven algorithms that indicate the likelihood of an environment-related anomaly on a geosynchronous satellite.
Since this is focused on satellites in geosynchronous orbits, they are mainly centered around the equator, which is why the coverage of the map only centers there. Therefore, the blue between 40S and 80S would just be the normal map without overlay, and that's just the ocean.
The green/yellow/red would be indicators of the level of hazard for a satellite in an orbit over that area. The specific graphic you posted is less than fully clear, but it seems to be a snapshot-in-time of the hazard in the area, while other graphics they provide include more danger-over-time focused information.
Based on the coloration in the Surface Charging section of this plot matching the colors in the original graphic you're asking about, I would guess that the yellow is a greater than 92% chance of the level of charge posing a hazard while red is greater than 97% chance to pose a hazard, assuming I'm interpreting the latter correctly.