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For the worldbuilding of a story I'm currently writing, I am considering drafting a UN treaty on managing space trash (meaning derelict spacecraft and debris of such). So I have a few questions.

First, is there maybe such a treaty already? If not the UN, then some other international treaty?

And second, what are national laws, binding to the subjects of particular sovereign jurisdiction, regulating the management of space trash?

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The Outer Space Treaty has a vague clause regarding spacecraft operated by one country causing "potentially harmful interference" with those of another country. Space trash most certainly can potentially cause harmful interference with all other spacecraft operating at the same altitude. The Outer Space Treaty also has a very specific clause that says that a state (i.e., country) is responsible for all spacecraft launched by that state or by non-state entities (e.g., private companies) operating in that state.

Every nation with capabilities to operate spacecraft is a signatory to the Outer Space Treaty. There are a few small island nations that are not signatories. The Moon Treaty tried to tighten up the looseness of the Outer Space Treaty. In contrast to the Outer Space Treaty, no space-faring nation has agreed to abide by the Moon Treaty.

The Space Liability Convention strengthens those weak clauses in the Outer Space Treaty and makes a state's spacecraft that has resulted in harmful damage or harmful interference with another state is liable for damages. This includes spacecraft that crash onto another state's territories, and theoretically, spacecraft that crash onto another state's spacecraft. This treaty has only been invoked once for the crash landing of Kosmos 954 (a USSR nuclear-powered satellite) onto Canadian territory.

The United Nations has subgroups that, while not exactly treaties, are close to that. The UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs administer the aforementioned treaties and give guidance regarding the fuzzier part of those treaties. The peaceful uses of outer space include two areas of special interest with regard to debris, the area around geostationary altitude and low Earth orbit. The UN Office for Outer Space Affairs has issued guidelines regarding both regions of interest. Spacecraft operating in geostationary orbits should raise their orbits by at least 235 kilometers at end of operational life, and spacecraft operating in LEO should reenter the Earth's atmosphere within 25 years of end of operational life. Note well: these are guidelines, not regulations.

Surprisingly, it's communications regulators that have actual teeth. The International Telecommunications Union is the organization that assigns geostationary orbit slots. An organization that wants one of those slots has to prove with high confidence to the ITU that it will follow the guidelines established by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs regarding stationkeeping and end of life safekeeping before the ITU will grant the requested slot.

Regarding LEO, the US Federal Communications Commission has recently (29 September 2022) issued a new regulation regarding low Earth orbit. Any organization that that wants to have a spacecraft operating at less than 2000 km altitude send signals earthward over US territory must demonstrate to the FCC that the spacecraft will, with high confidence, reenter the Earth's atmosphere within five years after the spacecraft's end of useful life. Existing spacecraft and spacecraft very far along their development are grandfathered in. New spacecraft will not get the FCC license if they don't comply with this new rule. One key intent of this new rule is to strength those UN Office for Outer Space Affairs guidelines, and to lead the way in making those fuzzy guidelines have teeth.

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Agree with David on what he posted, but also remember Article VIII of the Outer Space Treaty, which says "Ownership of objects launched into outer space, including objects landed or constructed on a celestial body, and of their component parts, is not affected by their presence in outer space..."

Space junk, whether debris or entire dead satellites, is still owned by whoever owned it before and subject to control by the launching state(s). Russia in particular has argued that this means NO ONE can remediate their debris without their consent, for example.

So in some ways we have the opposite of a treaty allowing salvage or debris removal. This contrasts strongly with maritime law, where abandoned ships are legally salvageable, but note that sovereign (government) vessels remain sovereign even when abandoned under maritime law, so you can't go around salvaging sunken warships. It's as if all space debris were government ships, if you want a maritime parallel.

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