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Just as the title, how could one find out, or simply estimate the maximum and minimum likely surface temperatures of a satellite orbiting in GEO.

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    $\begingroup$ Welcome to Stack Exchange! I've made some small edits to your question to make it a better fit. The primary issue will be the emissivity of the particular surface (satellites have many different surface materials) in the visible and the thermal IR wavelength ranges. $\endgroup$
    – uhoh
    Jun 21, 2023 at 4:58
  • $\begingroup$ related: Temperature of a satellite orbiting in low Earth orbit (doesn't ask for max and min, and of course has to deal with regular eclipsing of the Sun) and What are these very large, square panels on Inmarsat 5? (mirrors with a coating of glass on the front are one of the "coolest" surfaces) $\endgroup$
    – uhoh
    Jun 21, 2023 at 5:02
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    $\begingroup$ I found the document Environmental Conditions for Space Flight Hardware - A Survey. There it is reported that the temperature in GEO varies in the ranges of -196 ºC to +128ºC. This seems to be consistent with a similar answer to your question (it must be taken into account that some of these components are not directly affected by the environment, but are located in the body of the satellite, where an optimal microclimate can be maintained.). $\endgroup$
    – dtn
    Jun 21, 2023 at 5:16
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    $\begingroup$ It depends entirely on the absorptivity of the sun facing side and the emissivity of the entire craft as well as the heat distribution inside the craft. A satellite with radiators and a cooling circuit will have much more tame and stable temperatures than one without. You could do a black body analysis to estimate the extremes. $\endgroup$
    – A McKelvy
    Jun 22, 2023 at 1:51
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    $\begingroup$ For more than you ever wanted to know about thermal control of spacecraft, download this .PDF academia.edu/934756/Thermal_Control_Handbook $\endgroup$
    – Woody
    Jun 23, 2023 at 5:56

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