Here are a few cost vectors (and I'm sure I'm missing some)
Debris mitigation in spacecraft and mission design.
This includes things like
- Reduction of launch debris, stages left on orbit, etc.
- end of life disposal capability
- passivisation (ie. venting unused fuel, etc. to reduce risk of breakups)
- reducing operational debris (stuff intentionally released from spacecraft during operations - lens caps, retaining devices, etc.)
- collision avoidance, including initial orbit selection.
There are international, national and organizational standards governing this
sort of thing. Here are a few examples:
Conjunction Analysis Screening
This is the big picture ongoing calculation and assessment of potential satellite collisions. While the calculation of the potential conjunction events is relatively straightforward, it requires as input, the full high accuracy space catalog. In the US, this is closely held by the Air Force at the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). As such, they typically perform the high level screenings and provide warnings to interested satellite operators around the world as a free service. The Space Data Alliance - an industry consortium - also provides a conjunction screening service using owner/operator ephemeris from their members, which may be more accurate then the catalog maintained by the JSpOC, particularly for actively maneuvering objects.
Owner/Operator Conjunction Analysis & Response
Given an externally provided warning, an owner/operator must then analyze the event and decide on a course of action. This can incur significant technical manpower and may result in the execution of a spacecraft maneuver with a corresponding loss of operational life. Not all spacecraft have a maneuver capability, and not all operators of those that do perform active collision avoidance. Many operators subscribe to the big sky theory of collision avoidance.
This would include costs such as constellation redundancy, insurance, etc. to protect the business operations in the face of various risks, including loss of spacecraft due to collision events.