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Is the surface of Jupiter liquid, this is of particular interest because Jupiter has a gaseous atmosphere and liquid hydrogen?

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Not exactly. Actually, the transition between the gaseous atmosphere and the liquid hydrogen layer is so gradual that, if observed (which it has not), it would not be clear where to draw the line between the two.

The idea of a "surface" depends on the phase diagram for the elements involved. Here's an example on of a phase transition diagram for Hydrogen, the main (but not only) constituent of the Jovian atmosphere.

enter image description here
(Image Source: https://www.pnas.org/doi/full/10.1073/pnas.1007947107)

At he Critical Point, it is no longer possible to distinguish between a gas and a liquid.

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    $\begingroup$ Your answer could be improved with additional supporting information. Please edit to add further details, such as citations or documentation, so that others can confirm that your answer is correct. You can find more information on how to write good answers in the help center. $\endgroup$
    – Community Bot
    Aug 22, 2023 at 20:32
  • $\begingroup$ The answer was already edited with additional info and citations. $\endgroup$
    – not2qubit
    Aug 24, 2023 at 10:09

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