Imagine you have a 1 by 1 by 2 meter chamber that a human needs to survive in for one year, while orbiting in Jupiter’s radiation belts. How much lead, in weight, would have to surround the chamber to for the human to survive?

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    $\begingroup$ Can you please edit to clarify chamber size/shape/volume? As displayed, the question could be read a half meter or 112 meter. Thanks $\endgroup$
    – Woody
    Nov 17, 2023 at 17:51
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    $\begingroup$ Where in Jupiter's radiation belts? Different areas have different intensities of radiation. (Pro tip: avoid Io.) $\endgroup$
    – Cadence
    Nov 17, 2023 at 18:04
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    $\begingroup$ Jupiter radiation is mostly charged particles. The least massive shielding would be light nuclei, like hydrogen, not lead. Plastic or water would likely be better choices in a spacecraft. $\endgroup$
    – Woody
    Nov 17, 2023 at 21:14
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    $\begingroup$ However, these particles produce synchrotron radiation (including Xrays) which are most effectively blocked by heavy nuclei such as lead. I look forward to a posted answer to this question. $\endgroup$
    – Woody
    Nov 17, 2023 at 21:33
  • $\begingroup$ That's not much living space! I'm getting claustrophobic just thinking about it. FWIW, the Juno Radiation Vault uses 1 cm thick titanium to protect its sensitive electronics, but you need more protection for humans. $\endgroup$
    – PM 2Ring
    Nov 18, 2023 at 7:19


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