The Energia rocket could loft a massive 100 tons into orbit. It could also shoot about 32 tons to a trans-lunar injection. It did not have any upper stage. So, could it really go to orbit and even further, the moon? It is the only orbital class rocket that I know without an upper stage.
The "upper stage" was strapped to the side of the booster - it was incorporated into the payload.
The Buran had its own orbital maneuvering engines as did Energia's only other payload (Polyus).
Problems with the insertion burn on Polyus resulted in the loss of the mission.
However, Energia (or its payload) "could really go to orbit" - Buran did so.
Any Energia-lofted lunar payload would have had to provide similar arrangements.
The US space shuttle similarly had no 2nd stage as such.
The launch vehicle had two functionally different operational variants: Energia-Polyus, the initial test configuration, in which the Polyus system was used as a final stage intended to put the payload into orbit, and Energia-Buran, in which the Buran orbiter was the payload and the source of the orbit insertion impulse.