There is air inside the space station so, yes, anything moving within that air will experience air resistance. Whether that air resistance is enough to stop a thrown object before it hits the wall depends entirely on the object and how hard it is thrown. If the object is very aerodynamic (i.e., experiences little air resistance) and/or is thrown hard, it will hit the wall. If the object is very unaerodynamic and/or is thrown gently, it may well stop before it hits the wall.
Here's an equivalent experiment you could do on earth. If you start throwing burritos around in your kitchen, some of them will hit the floor because of gravity. To take that out of the equation, suppose you have two very tall towers, close enough together that you could throw a burrito from one to the other. The idea is that the ground is so far away that all the interesting stuff will happen before any burrito splats on the pavement. Assume there's no wind.
If you stand on top of one of the towers and throw your burrito horizontally and hard enough it will splat on the other tower. If throw it a little more gently, it will still hit the other tower, but lower down. However, if you throw it significantly more gently, air resistance will slow its horizontal velocity to zero before it reaches the other tower and, from that point, it will fall vertically and splat on the pavement.
Now, suppose that you jumped off your tower at the moment you throw the burrito. Let's assume that you are also a burrito so you both fall at the same rate. What would you see? Well, in the first two cases, you'd see the other burrito moving horizontally away from you, slowing down until it hits the wall. In the third case, you'd see it slow down and eventually stop without hitting the other wall, exactly as Chris Hadfield would see in the ISS. Think about that for a moment but don't forget to open your parachute before you hit the ground.